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The most improtant thing to consider here is not mass alone but “effective mass” (http://search.yahoo.com/search?ei=utf-8&fr=slv8-hptb5&p=effective%20mass&type=). Effective mass has to do with amount of energy required to set an object into motion, moment of inertia and how much energy is required to get an object in motion stopped.
In a tonearm effective mass is affected by the position of the counterweight at the back end of the tonearm. While hardly the only thing that affects the effective mass and inertia of the arm this can easily be understood as the effective mass of the arm is altered when the postition of the counterweight is changed. As the mass of the weight is moved closer to the bearing center (pivot point) the effective mass is reduced and conversely the effective mass increases as the weight is moved further away from the pivot point of the bearing.
If the position of the counterweight remains the same relative to the pivot point but the actual mass of the weight is increased or decreased the effective mass also changes. If both are changed, the mass and the position, you can go a long way to changing the effective mass of a tonearm. This is the idea behind the “heavy weight” counterweights sold for many tonearms. They, of course, can alter the original designer’s goals for the arm and make the system one that no longer operates as intended, so be careful when choosing your trade offs in arm design.
Now take that idea down to the smaller dimensions of the cantilever attached to either a chunk of magnet or a coil of wire. The pivot point remains constant while the mass and therefore the effective mass of the system changes with what is attached to the end of the cantilever. Obviously, the coil of wire has less mass than the chunk of magnet so when it is postioned at the end of the cantilever the effective mass in the system has been lowered. At the stylus end of the cantilever this means a more faithful replication of the extremely small traces of information within the groove wall.
Think of effective mass in this sense; how much more accurately can you sign your name if you hold the pen in your hand vs. if the pen is attached to the opposite end of a baseball bat that you must weild. Less effective mass in a cartridge means it is easier for the stylus to follow the groove modulations since it has less mass to drag along with it at the other end of the cantilever.
There have been numerous trade offs in the design of mc’s vs. mm’s one being a generally higher tracking force and lower compliance required to control the accurate movement of the stylus when incorporated into a mc system. This has not been a problem of real dimensions if you do not thnk the lightest tracking force and the highest compliance make for the best cartridge – in general once again, the lighter the tracking force, the more groove damage might occur if the arm/cartidge combination is not well matched. Most cartridges and tonearms of any variety have moved away from the lowest effective mass and highest compliance in order to deal with the real world conditions of modern day pressings.
Output voltage has also been a traditional trade off between cartridge types. In order to minimize the effective mass of the system in a mc cartridge, the coils have fewer windings than in a mm design which results in less voltage being generated by the movement of the coils within the magnetic field of the (now) fixed magnets. Therefore a traditional trade would be the lowest effective mass in a mc would result from a motor with with the fewest coil windings (minimal wire mass) which would then provide the lowest output voltage but supposedly the “best” sound quality.
To bring this extremely low output voltage up to a workable level requires more voltage gain in the phono pre amp or “pre” pre amp (a step up device placed before the phono pre amp). Various methods have been designed to raise the voltage of the very lowest output mc’s but each has its own trade off. An active pre pre amp will add more noise and distortion to the signal along with the other issues common to all active electronic circuits. An active pre pre amp however is the most flexible of the options.
In the past few decades more powerful magnets and finer control over the winding process involved in constructing a mc cartridge have resulted in higher output voltages for H.O. mc’s. Today you can find many mid priced mc’s that can work directly into a mm phono stage without extra circuitry.
Ethan’s suggestion of “better” high frequenct response has traditionally been coupled with a rising high frequency response in many mc’s which has made sound quality a bit of a dicey trade for many of us. The inability of the mc designer to fully damp the resonance of the moving coils in order to minimize this ringing has long been a traditional trade against the more “even” response of the better mm’s. Some listeners will say this extra bit of “zing” they hear from a mc gives a sense of airiness and openess while others say it is just distortion. Still others feel there is a solidity to the presentational style of most mm’s that is absent in most lower to mid priced mc’s.
In all of audio the phono system is the one most like the bumblebee that shouldn’t be able to fly but does. The trade offs are obvious no matter which way you look. There are also other types of phono cartridge motors available such as induced, variable reluctance, strain guage and moving iron systems. Each of these try to overcome the basic problems associated with mm’s and mc’s. In each case you must look at the various trade offs each system introduces and decide which might best suit your taste and system. There is no one best way to achieve high quality music reproduction, just a series of trade offs that work best for you when each component plays to the strengths of the others and minimizes the flaws of the rest.